Anatomical Variations in Clinical Dentistry


This excellently illustrated book aims to equip dentists, oral surgeons, and trainees with the detailed knowledge of anatomical variations in the oral region that is now required for optimal daily clinical practice. The book opens with an introductory section on anatomical variations from the point of view of different clinical practitioners – oral and maxillofacial surgeons, periodontists, and endodontists. The newest anatomical knowledge and variations are then presented in turn for the mandible, maxillary sinus, hard palate, floor of the mouth, lips, temporomandibular joint, and teeth. In each chapter, clinical annotations are included in order to enhance understanding of the relationships between surgery and anatomy. The internationally renowned authors have been carefully selected for their expertise in the topics that they discuss. Anatomical Variations in Clinical Dentistry will be invaluable for general dentists, endodontists, periodontists, and implantologists and will also be an asset for anatomists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists, dental students, and dental hygienists.

Gray's Clinical Photographic Dissector of the Human Body

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Dissection of the human body, even in the twenty-first century, continues to be the best way of learning the intricacies of the human body. The tactility involved with dissection and the variations in structures between specimens allows the student to gain a much deeper appreciation of human morphology. However, as the time allotted for anatomical education continues to be whittled down in most curricula, courses must continually evolve. Therefore, courses that continue to dissect the human cadaver must utilize all available time wisely. Traditionally, in most anatomy courses that use cadavers, students begin their dissections with the aid of a dissector and follow step-by-step instructions of how to dissect the human body. Such guides, in general, are written much like cookbooks and usually do not provide students with a pictorial step-by-step guide of what to expect during their exploration of the human body. When figures are used by such resources, they are almost always schematic drawings that often look nothing like the actual anatomical structures that are seen by the students. It is this deficit in the extant literature that compelled us to compile dissection photographs with accompanying text to better assist the student of anatomy. It is our hope that being able to see what students are expected to find during their dissection, from superficial to deep, will allow them to be more efficient not only in their learning experience but also with their time.

Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbar Plexus

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Thorough knowledge of the lumbar plexus and its branches is crucial to achieving positive patient outcomes, especially with newer surgical approaches. Many of the nerve branches are formed within the psoas major muscle and careful dissection is necessary to free them during surgery to prevent damage. Moreover, the iliac vessels are medial to some of the larger branches of the plexus, such as the femoral and obturator nerves. In the retroperitoneal space, the kidney and ureter are nearby. In addition, due to the overlying peritoneal cavity and its contents, accessing the lumbar plexus presents considerable challenges.

Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbar Plexus is the only book on the market devoted to the lumbar plexus and its branches, focusing on anatomy and clinical applications, pathology, surgery, and imaging. Internationally known authors R. Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Amgad Hanna, Rod Oskouian and a cadre of esteemed specialists provide unique insights, clinical pearls, knowledge based on thousands of spine surgeries, and a well-rounded multidisciplinary perspective.

Key Highlights

  • Nine separate chapters dedicated to impacted nerves: subcostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, furcal, and accessory obturator
  • History and overview of dermatomal anatomy of branches derived from the lumbar plexus
  • Anesthetic blockade of the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and genitofemoral nerves
  • Tips for preventing complications and achieving positive outcomes for lateral transpsoas approaches to the lumbar spine and other procedures
  • More than 100 novel illustrations provide clarity and understanding of a complex anatomical area as it relates to surgery involving the lumbar plexus and branches

This one-of-a-kind resource provides crucial surgical and anatomical information on the lumbar plexus. It is a must-have reference for neurosurgeons, orthopaedic surgeons, and general surgeons. Reading it cover-to-cover will ultimately benefit patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

Gray's Anatomy - The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice

Contributing Editor: R. Shane Tubbs, Ph.D.


In 1858, Drs. Henry Gray and Henry Vandyke Carter created a book for their surgical colleagues that established an enduring standard among anatomical texts. After more than 150 years of continuous publication, Gray’s Anatomy remains the definitive, comprehensive reference on the subject, offering ready access to the information you need to ensure safe, effective practice.

This 41st edition has been meticulously revised and updated throughout, reflecting the very latest understanding of clinical anatomy from field leaders around the world. The book’s traditional lavish art programme and clear text have been further honed and enhanced, while major advances in imaging techniques and the new insights they bring are fully captured in new state-of-the-art X-ray, CT, MR, and ultrasonic images.

  • Presents the most detailed and dependable coverage of anatomy available anywhere.
  • Regional organization collects all relevant material on each body area together in one place, making access to core information easier for clinical readers.
  • Anatomical information is matched with key clinical information where relevant.
  • Numerous clinical discussions emphasize considerations that may affect medical care.
  • Each chapter has been edited by experts in their field, ensuring access to the very latest evidence-based information on that topic.
  • More than 1,000 completely new photographs, including an extensive electronic collection of the latest X-ray, CT, MR, and histological images.
  • Carefully selected electronic enhancements include additional text, tables, illustrations, labelled imaging and videos - as well as 24 specially invited ‘Commentaries’ on new and emerging topics related to anatomy.

Island of Reil (Insula) in the Human Brain

This book provides an in-depth review of the insula, with emphasis on anatomical, diagnostics, clinical, and surgical features. The insular cortex is involved in a variety of functions, but a comprehensive resource cataloging these functions is not available in the current literature. This book gathers highly informative chapters written and edited by leading international authorities in the field and covers the full range of the insular cortex, approaching it in four main sections: firstly, the embryology and anatomy of the human insula; secondly, the functions of the human insula, including its role in nociception, language, decision making, cognition, emotional awareness etc.; thirdly, clinical disorders related to the insula such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease; and fourthly, surgical techniques for insular gliomas and temporal lobe epilepsy. This comprehensive reference book will be an ideal source for neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuroanatomists seeking both basic and more advanced information regarding this unique structure in the human brain.

An Illustrated Terminologia Neuroanatomica: A Concise Encyclopedia of Human Neuroanatomy

This book is unique in that it provides the reader with the most up-to-date terminology used to describe the human nervous system (central and peripheral) and the related sensory organs, i.e., the Terminologia Neuroanatomica (TNA), the official terminology of the IFAA (International Federation of Associations of Anatomists). The book provides a succinct but detailed review of the neuroanatomical structures of the human body and will greatly benefit not only various specialists such as (neuro)anatomists, neurologists and neuroscientists, but also students taking neuroanatomy and neuroscience courses.

 The book offers a high yield, combined presentation of neuroanatomical illustrations and text and provides the reader a ‘one-stop source’ for studying the intricacies of the human nervous system and its sensory organs. It includes an alphabetical list of official English terms and synonyms with the official Latin terms and synonyms from the TNA. With regard to the entries, the name of the item in standardized English is provided, followed by synonyms and the official TNA Latin term, Latin synonyms and eponyms, a short description and in many cases one or more illustrations.

To facilitate the use of illustrations, certain entries such as the gyri or sulci of the cerebral cortex are presented together with extensive cross-references. Terms that form part of a certain structure (such as the amygdaloid body, the thalamus and the hypothalamus) are listed under the respective structure. Segments and branches of arteries are discussed under the main artery, for example the A1–A5 segments under the anterior cerebral artery. Most nerves can be found following their origin from the brachial, cervical and lumbosacral plexuses. However, the major nerves of the limbs are discussed separately, as are the cranial nerves. Nuclei can be found by their English name or under Nuclei by their eponym. 

Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation


Building on the strength of the previous two editions, Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation is the third installment of the classic human anatomical reference launched by Dr. Ronald Bergman. With both new and updated entries, and now illustrated in full color, the encyclopedia provides an even more comprehensive reference on human variation for anatomists, anthropologists, physicians, surgeons, medical personnel, and all students of anatomy.

Developed by a team of editors with extensive records publishing on both human variation and normal human anatomy, Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation is the long awaited update to this classic reference.

Netter's Introduction to Clinical Procedures - 1st Edition

Marios Loukas R. Shane Tubbs Joseph Feldman


Written with the student in mind, Netter's Introduction to Clinical Procedures, by Drs. Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs, and Joseph Feldman, uses the well-known Netter anatomy art as a foundation for reinforcing the relevant clinical anatomy needed to successfully understand and perform basic procedures. Learn the practical application of this knowledge with step-by-step guides incorporating concise text, images, and animation.

Key Features

  • Didactic Netter illustrations provide clear informative visuals for quick understanding of anatomical relationships. 
  • Concise explanations enhance understanding of clinical underpinnings and implications.

Lobstein: On Spinal Accessory Nerve

Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, Nicoletta Degli Innocenti

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Johann Friedrich Lobstein (1736-1784) was an Strasbourg physician and anatomist. His 1760 inaugural dissertation on the spinal accessory nerve, written in Latin, is a classic. The neural anastomosis between the accessory and vagus nerves within the jugular foramen is known as Lobstein’s anastomosis. This book presents the first authentic English translation of Lobstein’s dissertation along with an introduction on the life of the author. The text is annotated throughout to make it easily comprehendible by contemporary readers.  

Imam Reza: The Golden Treatise of Medicine

Mohammadali M. Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, Mostafa Ghanei

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Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja‘far (766-818 AD), known as Imam Reza, is the eight of the Shiite Twelve Imam, an extremely respected and holy figure for Shiite Muslims. His medical epistle written to Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’moon was known as “The Golden Treatise of Medicine” (al-Risalat az-Zahabiyya), a classic Arabic medical text, has scarcely been examined in English literature. This book presents the first annotated English translation of this medical epistle, supplemented with a biography of the author and an explanatory introduction.  

Ibn Nafis on the Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves

Mohammadali M. Shoja, Mones Abu-Asab, Rod J. Oskouian, R. Shane Tubbs

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Ibn Nafis (1213–1288) is known for his discovery of the pulmonary circulation long before Michael Servetus and William Harvey. Shedding light on the pulmonary circulation for the first time in the history of science, Ibn Nafis’ Commentary on the Anatomy in the Canon of Avicenna has been the subject of many studies, but these have all been limited to his notion on the circulation. It is equally important for the historians of science and medicine to scrutinize the remaining parts of this commentary, yet to be fully translated into English. This book is the first English translation of a section of Ibn Nafis’s commentary on the anatomy of the nerves and particularly, the cranial nerves. 

August Froriep: The Cranial End of the Notochord in Human Embryos

Mohammadali M. Shoja, Janet Golden, Bradley K. Weiner, R. Shane Tubbs

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August Froriep (1849–1917) was a German anatomist at Tübingen and a student of the great Jacob Henle (1809–1885). Froriep is known for his studies on the morphology and embryology of the head and vertebrae, and his descriptions of the temporary aggregation of neurons at the root of the embryonic hypoglossal nerve, known today as Froriep’s ganglion. 

In 1882, Froriep and Henle’s former students gathered in Gottingen to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Henle’s doctorate and present him a gift, Beiträge zur Anatomie und Embryologie (Contributions to Anatomy and Embryology), a book composed of chapters written by his students. The book included the classic paper by Froriep on the development of the notochord, which contained six beautifully crafted illustrations of this developmental anatomy. The present book is the first English transla-tion of Froriep’s paper as it appeared in Contributions to Anatomy and Embryology as a Gift to Jacob Henle, On April 4, 1882, Presented by his Pupils. Froriep’s black-and-white illustrations of notochordal development are reproduced in color.

Changes in the Cerebellum, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata due to Congenital Hydrocephalus of the Cerebrum - 1st Edition

R. Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M. Shoja, W. Jerry Oakes


Herniation of posterior cranial fossa contents was almost unknown before the publications of the Austrian pathologist Hans Chiari. Although other earlier, scattered, and single descriptions of the various types of hindbrain malformations that he studied had been made, it was Chiari who comprehensively described and categorized these pathological entities. This book presents the first English translation of Chiari's 1896 masterpiece on hindbrain herniations. The importance of these works in the history of medicine cannot be overstated. It is this monumental publication that would go on to pave the way for a better understanding and the development of surgical techniques to treat what has appropriately become known as the Chiari malformations.

Gray's Anatomy Review - 2nd Edition

Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs, Peter H. Abrahams, Stephen W. Carmichael


Now in its second edition, Gray’s Anatomy Review continues to be an easy-to-use resource that helps you relate anatomy to clinical practice and pass your exams. Designed as a companion to Gray’s Anatomy for Students, this medical textbook is your indispensable resource for both in-course examinations and the USMLE Step 1.

  • Enhance your understanding of the subject and access more detailed information with specific page references to Gray’s Anatomy for Students, plus key answers and explanations to Gray’s Basic Anatomy and Gray’s Atlas of Anatomy
  • Search the full contents online at Student Consult.
  • Challenge your grasp of anatomical knowledge and the anatomical basis of disease with more than 500 high-quality, USMLE-style questions, complete with answers and rationales, that mirror the actual USMLE Step 1.
  • Visualize key concepts with updated radiologic images and extensive use of photographs.
  • Understand the latest imaging techniques as seen in clinical practice with the most current knowledge available on today’s anatomical imaging modalities.

Gray's Clinical Photographic Dissector of the Human Body

Marios Loukas, Brion Benninger, R. Shane Tubbs


Gray’s Clinical Photographic Dissector of the Human Body, by Drs. Marios Loukas, Brion Benninger, and R. Shane Tubbs, helps you take a clinical approach to the study of anatomy. This unique dissection guide uses full-color photographs rather than anatomical drawings to orient you more quickly in the lab, and points out the clinical significance of each structure and every dissection you make. You will also find valuable information on several emergency procedures used today to further reinforce the clinical correlations. With 1,300+ photos, this resource is a great way to learn or review anatomy and its relevance to clinical practice.

Key Features

  • Easily relate anatomy structures to clinical conditions and procedures.
  • Perform dissections with confidence by comparing the 1,350 full-color photographs to the cadavers you study.
  • Understand the pertinent anatomy for 18 common emergency procedures such as lumbar puncture and knee aspiration.
  • Depend on the same level of accuracy and thoroughness that have made Gray’s Anatomy the defining reference on this complex subject, thanks to the expertise of Dr. Marios Loukas, a leading authority in the world of clinical anatomy.