The neuroanatomy of depression: A review

Oakes P, Loukas M, Oskouian RJ, Tubbs RS.The neuroanatomy of depression: A review.Clin Anat. 2016 Aug 31. doi: 10.1002/ca.22781.


Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder, the number one cause of disability and affects up to 15% of the population. The aim of this review is to present a brief synopsis of the various biochemical imbalances thought to contribute to depression, aspects of anatomy possibly implicated in depression, and treatments related to targeting these specific locales. Multiple neurotransmitters and parts of the brain are involved with the disorder of depression. Although an exact etiology for depression has not been found in most cases, various treatments, medicinal, psychiatric and surgical, exist for this disabling disease. An improved knowledge of anatomical sites involved in patients with depression will help in future treatment modalities. Clin. Anat., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.