A comprehensive review of the sub-axial ligaments of the vertebral column: part II histology and embryology

Butt, A.M., Gill, C., Demerdash, A., Watanabe, K., Loukas, M., Rozzelle, C.J., Tubbs, R.S., 2015b. A comprehensive review of the sub-axial ligaments of the vertebral column: part II histology and embryology. Childs Nerv Syst 31, 1061–1066. doi:10.1007/s00381-015-2730-6.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
As important as the vertebral ligaments are in maintaining the integrity of the spinal column and protecting the contents of the spinal canal, a single detailed review of their histology and embryology is missing in the literature.

METHODS:
A literature search using online search engines was conducted.

RESULTS:
Single comprehensive reviews of the histology and embryology of the spinal ligaments are not found in the extant medical literature.

CONCLUSIONS:
This review will be useful to those who study or treat patients with pathology of the spine.