Butt, A.M., Gill, C., Demerdash, A., Watanabe, K., Loukas, M., Rozzelle, C.J., Tubbs, R.S., 2015b. A comprehensive review of the sub-axial ligaments of the vertebral column: part II histology and embryology. Childs Nerv Syst 31, 1061–1066. doi:10.1007/s00381-015-2730-6.
As important as the vertebral ligaments are in maintaining the integrity of the spinal column and protecting the contents of the spinal canal, a single detailed review of their histology and embryology is missing in the literature.
A literature search using online search engines was conducted.
Single comprehensive reviews of the histology and embryology of the spinal ligaments are not found in the extant medical literature.
This review will be useful to those who study or treat patients with pathology of the spine.