Comprehensive anatomical and immunohistochemical review of the innervation of the human spine and joints with application to an improved understanding of back pain

Youssef P, Loukas M, Chapman JR, Oskouian RJ, Tubbs RS.Comprehensive anatomical and immunohistochemical review of the innervation of the human spine and joints with application to an improved understanding of back pain.Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Feb;32(2):243-51. doi: 10.1007/s00381-015-2880-6. 

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Pain of spinal origin contributes significantly to cervical, thoracic, and lower back pain presentations. Such pain originates in the nerve fibers supplying the joints or the surrounding ligaments and intervertebral discs. Although there has been little detailed discussion of spinal bony innervation patterns in the literature, the clinical implications of these patterns are anatomically and medically significant.

METHODS:

The present review provides a detailed analysis of the innervation of the spine, identifying the unique features of each part via online search engines.

CONCLUSIONS:

The clinical implications of these various studies lie in the importance of the innervation patterns for the mechanism of spinal pain. Immunohistochemical studies have provided further evidence regarding the nature of the innervation of the spine.