Enigmatic human tails: A review of their history, embryology, classification, and clinical manifestations

Tubbs RS, Malefant J, Loukas M, Jerry Oakes W, Oskouian RJ, Fries FN.Enigmatic human tails: A review of their history, embryology, classification, and clinical manifestations.Clin Anat. 2016 May;29(4):430-8. doi: 10.1002/ca.22712. 

ABSTRACT

The presence of a human tail is a rare and intriguing phenomenon. While cases have been reported in the literature, confusion remains with respect to the proper classification, definition, and treatment methods. We review the literature concerning this anatomical derailment. We also consider the importance of excluding underlying congenital anomalies in these patients to prevent neurological deficits and other abnormal manifestations.