Fisahn C, Shoja MM, Turgut M, Oskouian RJ, Oakes WJ, Tubbs RS.The Chiari 3.5 malformation: a review of the only reported case.Childs Nerv Syst. 2016 Sep 27.
In 1894, Giuseppe Muscatello described what we believe to be the only case of an occipitocervical encephalocele with a communication to the stomach. This case and its history and context compared to the Chiari 3 malformation as described 3 years earlier by Hans Chiari are presented.
Based on the uniqueness of this case, we propose the term Chiari 3.5 malformation be used to describe its anatomical derailment.